Shrinking the Telescope – “Astronomers from the past 50 years have made wondrous discoveries, enlarged our understanding of the universe and opened humanity’s vision beyond the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Our knowledge of how the cosmos was born and how many of its phenomena arise has grown exponentially in just one human lifetime. In spite of these great strides there remain basic questions which are largely unanswered. To further our knowledge of how our present universe formed following the Big Bang requires a new type of Observatory having capabilities currently unavailable in either existing ground-based or space telescopes.”
The larger is better notion is so embodied within our understanding, that just the notion of smaller more effective telescope appears to defy all the laws of science. Yet, science always supports Miniature Size Telescopes. It is, however, the lock of comprehension of the basic principle of focus that’s deprives us over the centuries. Research in this field has provided a full comprehension of the science behind optical telescope operation that has led to the design of the next generation of telescopes. The debut size of mini telescope are the size of a viewfinder currently used on existing telescopes. Yet, these new generation of telescopes will posses resolving strong greater than even the biggest known telescope.
Technique in lens and mirror manufacturing has improved significantly over the centuries. With the aid of computers, lasers, and robotics technologies, optics can be made with precision accuracy. Finally, the size of telescopes will reduce to wearable instrument as small as a pair of glasses, in the not so distance future. Telescopes will soon be comprised of very small (a few centimeters in length) tubes fitted into a headgear. They will have the advantage of precise movement and shock absorbent the human head supplies. Wide field of view like that of the naked eye, remarkable focus, infinite magnification (limited only by light pollution and disturbance), and brightness allowing snap shot color photographing and live video recording. Headgear will be convenient, efficient, and versatile. The design reserves the capability to be up-graded and customized. After nearly 400 years of telescope development, we finally have a revolutionary breakthrough now capable of reshaping telescopes science and create revolutionary optical devices to shrink football size telescopes to a view finder, and become a pair of glasses.
We constantly improve present technology by making them smaller and more efficient. Oftentimes, smaller more integrated designs increase the broad category of efficiencies. We’re now capable of manufacturing instruments on a microscopic scale, with the exception of the optical telescope. As we advance in research and development of these instruments, they grow bigger in size with each new generation.
However, it’s embedded in our heads that we are not able to raise resolution with reduced size in a single design. In regard to this, engineers continue to build bigger and bigger instruments, producing monsters and giants. The motive Miniature Size Telescope is considered impossible lies not only with optical science, but also with unclear comprehension of the principle of light. We still do not understand the complex interaction involved in both viewing and capturing images, until today. It is for this doubt, why we use two different theories of light. Light is seen as a particle which hastens from point A to point B, and light is also seen as waves that transmit by way of wave motion. Where one theory fails to make sense, another is applied. Miniature Size Telescope is base on ‘Unify Theory of Light’.
The Science – Our eyes are extremely unique: a young person’s pupil dilates between 7 and 2 millimeters, yet, the eye posses the ability to see images several tens of meters in diameter. Our wide field of view offers convincing evidence that we view converging image rays rather than parallel rays. Converging rays describe rays that convert towards a stage. Therefore, picture carried by these rays reduce their cross sectional area with distance travel. Images collected by the largest telescope aperture, really enters the couple millimeters of our eyes. Small sight angle (true field) at moments of a degree, so small the mind finds it difficult to isolate the details they feature for recognition, when they are factored into our whole field of view. These small-angles of advice get compressed within our large field of view, and appear to be just a small spot or become invisible.
Nevertheless, magnification provides the means by which small sight angles are converted to bigger ones. A refractor telescope with an aperture of 30 millimeters and 120 millimeters focal length (focal ratio f/4), offering a magnifying power of 5x times and will have an exit pupil of 5 millimeters. This is a very bright telescope, tapping close the maximum of 7 millimeters opening of the student. If a second telescope was constructed, having identical aperture size of 30 millimeters, but have a focal length of 1200 millimeters (f/40). The magnifying power will be 50x times. Rather than a 5 millimeters exit pupil, such telescope will finally have an exit pupil of just 0.5 millimeter. From exactly the same formula, to obtain a 50x times magnifying power and an exit pupil of 5 millimeters, the aperture needed is 300 millimeters.
Refractor telescopes can’t obtain a 7 millimeters exit student without being affected by aberrations. So as to overcome this, telescope designers attempt to allocate a balance between brightness and magnification. Resolving power describes this balance. The compromise will lower brightness, but increase magnification power and image clarity by exactly the same proportion. The ocular plays an significant role in finalizing the image of the apparent field. They are capable of influencing field of view, magnification, and exit pupil (brightness).
From the bigger is better formula, we know that by increasing the aperture of the objective, we could increase the exit pupil and therefore the brightness of the picture. There are several optical design aberrations that set restriction on modem telescope design. In designing optical systems, the optical engineer must make tradeoffs in controlling aberrations to achieve the desired outcome. Aberrations are any mistakes that result from the imperfection of a picture. Such errors could result from design or manufacture or both.
Achromatic lenses are designed to reduce color aberration created whenever white light is refracted, but with even the best designs, color aberration can’t be totally eliminated. Color aberration also contains a secondary effect known as the secondary spectrum. Color aberration limits most refractors into a focal ratio of f/15. Reflectors, which is less affected by color aberration, has focal ration of f/5 for commercial design and f/2.5 for professional layouts. Within known telescope design, the various conditions necessary for image perfection is incorporated, thus forcing engineers to compromise to get a close balance that will render the best possible picture.
What if magnification, focus, and brightness can be separated? The new formula for âEUR~Miniature Size Telescopes’ isolates all these factors and allow each to be independently tuned for maximum efficiency.
The Desire for Magnifying Power- “The Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (Owl) is an wonderful project, which requires global effort. This enormous telescope main mirror would be more than 100 meters in diameters and will have resolution 40 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. This is a telescope with a primary mirror the size of a foot ball field.”
The need for greater magnifying power started with the Galilean design. Research and experiments to improve the telescope’s magnification indicates that increase in magnification power is directly proportional to the difference in the focal length of the objective and the ocular (eyepiece), where the ocular focal length is the shorter of the two. The race to construct the most effective telescope started at an early age in telescope development. The best minds in the time compete to dominate the shaping of the new technology.
During this era, telescope tubes were created very long. At times, these tubes reach span that leaves them unstable. In some cases the tubes were removed from the device’s design. Tubeless telescopes were called aerial telescopes. As telescope Engineers compete to develop more powerful telescopes, they encountered a secondary issue that limits the length and magnification of these ancient ‘refractor’ telescope designs. They notice that pictures became darken with growth magnification. Some how, magnification was decreasing the amount of light entering and or exiting the telescope lenses. The explanation for this phenomenon, was that sufficient light was not leaving the telescope ocular, as enough light was not been collected at the objective. An increase in the aperture size increases the exit pupil and the problem of dark image with magnification was solved.
At this stage in telescope development, only Keplerian and Galilean ‘refractor’ telescopes were invented. Lens making was in its early stages and it was difficult to fabricate quality lenses. Large aperture lenses were even a bigger challenge. Refractor telescope shortly reach its’ size limit, but now that the second section to the formula for high resolving power is famous, reflector telescope of several variations was born.
To date, nearly 400 years later, the same formula is still used. Modem improvements simply increase the quality of the optics now use, where modification minimized aberrations. We can now build larger telescopes with resolving power and brightness taught possible in the time of Galileo, but the formula used in developing these modem instruments is the same as the earliest designs-bigger is better. The larger is better formula is not without limitations. The required focal ratio limits the light collecting capabilities of refractors. Reflectors are not affected by secondary spectrum effect. Focal ratio in the range of ff2.5 is reasonable when requiring exit pupil close to 7 millimeters. However, any attempt to increase magnification inside these reflector telescopes while maintaining brightness, will require increase in the aperture and the focal length in the exact same proportion.
Previous Limitations – Understanding of the principle of lighting has rewarded us with the development of modern optical technologies. The present article is written to introduce a breakthrough in research and development of Little Powerful Telescopes. Most major telescope generates will inform you that magnification is not of significant importance; and that brightness is a more announce concern a buyer should have when buying telescope. Magnification and brightness are equally important for viewing and capturing distant pictures, but the main factor in rendering details in an image, is focus. Of all of the basic principles involve in capturing an image, focus is less known. The awareness of a picture focal point and the way to accomplish a focus image can be easily calculated, but what would be the electrodynamics interactions that written a focus picture is still unanswered.
All optical instruments are layout around focus; therefore it will always be a top priority in the creation of clear image. Magnification and brightness are of secondary importance, they are the result after focus is reached. It is the critical distance of focus that determine the maximum brightness and magnification at which an image will be clearly seen. Magnification refers to the action of converting smaller sight angles (true field) into larger ones (clear field), this provide change in the angle where the image rays are received, thus, tricking the mind into believing that the thing is either closer or bigger then it really is. If it was not for the need for focus, a single convex lens âEUR”a magnifier-would be a telescope capable of infinite zoom magnification, through the action of just varying the space it’s held from the eye. Unfortunately, however, there is a critical distant where images are focus through a single lens or just a system of lenses. This is also known as the critical distance of focus.
Early lens maker, Jan Lippershey was experimenting with two distinct lenses when he discovered that the effect of distant magnification. He discovered that by holding a negative lens near the eye while holding a positive lens in alignment with the first, away from the eye, that distant objects appeared much nearer than they would with the naked eye. Even with today’s technology, telescope designers are still confronted with major design limitations and challenges that forge a compromise between telescope size, brightness, and image clarity. Scientists have always been puzzled by the nature of light. Sir Isaac Newton regards light as stream of little particles traveling in straight line. Dutch scientist Christian Huygens, on the other hand, believed that light consisted of waves at a substance called the ether, which he supposed fill space, including a vacuum. Huygens theory became accepted as the better concept of the two. Today, however, scientists think that light include a stream of tiny wave pockets of energy called photons.
The Bigger is Better Formula – “Having a telescope which has 10 times the collecting area of each telescope ever built. You would have the ability to go down several thousand times fainter than the faintest thing you see with todayâEUR~s telescopes.”
The formula that shaped known telescopes over the centuries of development is really basic, well known, and proven- bigger is better. This is just like saying that bigger aperture provides brighter picture, while longer focal length provides greater magnification. Nevertheless, is this formula written in stone? Let’s set the formula into the test. Can big magnification be obtained with no long focal length objective? Microscopes provide very large magnification with relatively short focal length objective. Is it feasible to collect light without really large aperture size? Again, the answer is yes. Microscope also demonstrates this. Then why is it that microscopes provide great magnification with sufficient brightness at a relatively small size, while telescopes cannot? This shows it isn’t the law of magnification nor brightness, but it the tool’s design limitations that insist upon the concept that bigger is better. A basic Keplerian design telescope operates as a microscope when seen through the other end of the tube. From the fact that telescopes are essentially an inverted microscope, one can see the close relationship between the two.
A global standard full size student microscope provides up to 400x magnifying power, yet such a microscope is made up of tube less then 20 centimeter in length. So as to obtain equal brightness and magnifying power in a telescope, focal ratio of f/2.5 is recommended for an exit pupil near 7 millimeters. Such telescope will need an aperture of 320 centimeters (3.2 meters) and a focal length of 800 centimeters (8 meters), calculating approximately with a 20 millimeters ocular. This is an increase of nearly 50x in size. Focusing of remote images is harder than focusing of close-up images. We can prove this with a single magnifying lens that is held near the eye. Objects further then 2/3 the focal length of this lens will probably be out of focus.
All optical systems are design around focus. In order to vary magnification and brightness, focus needs to be constant. We may compromise magnification for brightness and visa- a- verse, but we can never compromise focus. Therefore, rather than saying that magnification M is inversely proportional to brightness, it is also accurate to say that magnification M is equal to focus divided by brightness B, where attention is a constant D.
M = D/B
Magnification power (M) = focus continuous (D) / Brightness (B) Within know optical telescope design, all three factors are incorporated. Focus has been the main element for rendering a crystal clear image, while magnification and brightness both functions as a secondary element in the appearance of a focused picture. As an example optical systems, focus, brightness, and magnification are inseparable. The resolving power is used to sum up the performance of a telescope. It’s established by the telescope’s ability to imprint details within an image. A picture is the imprint of individual dots that comes together to form a whole picture. Magnifying a picture involve extending these dots. Light magnification is much different from image magnification, and magnifies by changing the angle of the obtained picture light.
But there is the breakthrough question, what if these three important elements could be isolated and individually tuned? Hm mm. Telescope engineering will not be the same again, and the science of astronomy will explode.